IT networks allow machines (e.g. computers, mobiles, fax machines, servers, laptops, etc.) to communicate, transfer files, share resources and information. The network can be used for running a connected system of multi-user applications across the globe.
These connected devices can facilitate central management where the connected PCs promote interoperability and standard of working together. In addition, such a system reduces the cost of operation and management (e.g. backup or security).
Small area networks, as found in shops or small offices, are mostly LAN-based networks, whereas larger area connectivity is provided by MAN (Metropolitan Area Network).
LAN can be based on Ethernet or FDDI. WAN is used across continents and is based on ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) technology and ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network). LAN and WAN can be connected through T1 or T3 digital lease lines.
These connections use devices – bridge (to link two LANs), router, B-router, or bridge router and gateway (connects two systems). These can be peer-to-peer without central control or server-based.
A dedicated server can provide server-based networks, and the server can be used to store confidential information, resources, and applications. In addition, the server can handle many related applications from one place, where all the transactions and data can be easily secured.
The connected computers to the server lines are client machines, which can help process information and send the final output to the server.
In a central network – the coupled machines (computers or other devices) exchange data where each device is called a node having a unique address, i.e. the numeric quantities remembered by the computer (Example: 22.214.171.124).
The DNS provides methods to translate mnemonic textual internet addresses into numeric. Port or the IP address identifies the host and IP port of the application. Some nodes have addresses – such as the web address. Data transmission on modern networks is based on packet switching.
Infiltrations and RIsks
These days even fax machines (i.e. fax number of the user) can be used as an entry point to unlawfully enter a network and execute malware. Additionally, some entry points into the system could be an all-in-one device where such devices have access to security, making them vulnerable.
The system can be exploited to access confidential data, whilst not many provisions are offered even by the new devices to secure data. Users mostly overlook such concerns.
The use of many sets of connections on devices such as mobiles allows potential infiltrators to enter unauthorised network zones and gain access to sensitive information. Therefore, it is crucial to enhance awareness about such risk factors.
Future IT Networks
Studies in IT networking have led to the emergence of deep neural networks that involve diverse architectures and dissimilar networks – where the networks can allow the system to choose one of the most effective algorithms on its own, based on competition recognition and visualisation of data.
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